Orthopedic fixation devices or orthopedic instruments are indicated to use in the treatment of fractures, reconstructive surgery, and soft-tissue injuries. After external, internal or intramedullary fixation fracture reduction, devices may be used to provide stability and maintain the alignment of bone fragments during the process of healing. They must be secure and strong enough to allow early mobilization of the injured part, as well as the entire patient. Compression is used whenever possible to increase the contact area as well as the stability between fragments and to decrease the stress on the implant.
The Orthopedic Bone plate or bone screws are used primarily to provide interfragmentary compression or to attach bone plates, that can provide compression, prevent displacement, and support the fragments during healing and Siora Surgicals is well-known name for bone plates manufacturers in India. Wires and pins can be used for fixation of small fragments or fractures in small bones as well as for attachment of external fixation devices and traction. A basic understanding of the devices and principles of use is required to interpret radiographs obtained after the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries.
The present goals of fracture treatment are to reduce and stabilize the fracture with techniques and devices that result in healing and complete recovery with the very less additional injury to the bone and soft tissues. Early movement and rehabilitation of the injured limb are essential to prevent stiffness and disuse atrophy of the bone and soft tissues. These methods decrease the recovery and hospitalization periods, as well as the risk of nonunion, malunion, and infection.
To achieve these goals, many different techniques of reduction and fixation may be used, depending on the patient, location and type of the fracture, the experience of the surgeon, and associated injuries. With several fractures (e.g., those in the shaft of the femur), an excellent result can be achieved without an exact or “anatomic” reduction of each fragment if the overall alignment of the bone is restored.
In general, a closed reduction is used when the bone’s functional alignment can be restored, and fixation achieved without exposure of the fracture. The reduction is then maintained with external support, such as a cast or splint on some type of surgical fixation device. Common examples include a transverse tibia shaft fracture treated with a cast and closed reduction, a femoral shaft fracture treated with intramedullary fixation and closed reduction, on a pediatric supracondylar elbow fracture treated with closed reduction and percutaneous pin fixation.
An open reduction is used for fractures that need a reduction that cannot be achieved with closed techniques. The fracture is exposed or opened to restore the anatomy, and the internal fixation device is usually required to maintain the reduction. Common examples include intra-articular fractures that require an exact, anatomic reduction and adult forearm fractures; in both, a reduction is tough to achieve on maintaining with closed treatment, and open reduction with internal fixation is needed. Other indications for open reduction with internal fixation include fractures associated with multiple injuries or neurovascular damage and pathologic fractures.